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JAMB Physics syllabus
1. Measurements and Units
- Length, area and volume:
- Metre rule,
- Venier calipers
- measuring cylinder.
- unit of mass;
- use of simple beam balance;
- concept of beam balance.
- unit of time;
- time-measuring devices.
- Fundamental physical quantities
- Derived physical quantities and their units
- Combinations of fundamental quantities and determination of their units;
- definition of dimensions
- simple examples
- Limitations of experimental measurements
- accuracy of measuring instruments;
- simple estimation of errors;
- significant figures;
- standard form.
- Measurement, position, distance and displacement
- concept of displacement;
- distinction between distance and displacement;
- concept of position and coordinates;
- frame of reference.
2. Scalars and Vectors
- definition of scalar and vector quantities;
- examples of scalar and vector quantities;
- relative velocity;
- resolution of vectors into two perpendicular directions including graphical methods of solution.
- Types of motion:
- spin and random
- Relative motion
- Causes of motion
- Types of force
- force field
- linear motion
- speed, velocity and acceleration;
- equations of uniformly accelerated motion;
- motion under gravity;
- distance-time graph and velocity time graph;
- instantaneous velocity and acceleration.
- calculation of range, maximum height and time of flight from the ground and a height;
- applications of projectile motion.
- Newton’s laws of motion:
- inertia, mass and force;
- relationship between mass and acceleration;
- impulse and momentum;
- force – time graph
- conservation of linear momentum (Coefficient of restitution not necessary).
- Motion in a circle:
- angular velocity and angular acceleration;
- centripetal and centrifugal forces;
- Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M):
- definition and explanation of simple harmonic motion;
- examples of systems that execute S.H.M;
- period, frequency and amplitude of S.H.M;
- velocity and acceleration of S.H.M;
- simple treatment of energy change in S.H.M;
- force vibration and resonance (simple treatment).
4. Gravitational field
- Newton’s law of universal gravitation;
- gravitational potential;
- conservative and non-conservative fields;
- acceleration due to gravity;
- variation of g on the earth’s surface;
- distinction between mass and weight escape velocity;
- parking orbit and weightlessness.
5. Equilibrium of Forces
- equilibrium of particles:
- equilibrium of coplanar forces;
- triangles and polygon of forces;
- Lami’s theorem.
- principles of moments
- moment of a force;
- simple treatment and moment of a couple (torgue);
- conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non-parallel forces
- resolution and composition of forces in two perpendicular directions;
- resultant and equilibrant.
- centre of gravity and stability
- stable, unstable and neutral equilibra.
6. (a) Work, Energy and Power
- definition of work, energy and power;
- forms of energy;
- conservation of energy;
- qualitative treatment between different forms of energy;
- interpretation of area under the force-distance curve.
- Energy and society
- sources of energy;
- renewable and non-renewable energy e.g. coal, crude oil etc.;
- uses of energy;
- energy and development;
- energy diversification;
- environmental impact of energy e.g. global warming, greenhouse effect and spillage;
- energy crises;
- conversion of energy;
- devices used in energy production.
- Dams and energy production
- location of dams
- energy production
- nuclear energy
- solar energy
- solar collector;
- solar panel for energy supply.
- static and dynamic friction;
- coefficient of limiting friction and its determination;
- advantages and disadvantages of friction
- reduction of friction;
- qualitative treatment of viscosity and terminal velocity;
- Stoke’s law.
8. Simple Machines
- definition of simple machines;
- types of machines;
- mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of machines.
- elastic limit, yield point, breaking point, Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus;
- the spring balance as a device for measuring force;
- work done per unit volume in springs and elastic strings;
- Atmospheric Pressure
- definition of atmospheric pressure;
- units of pressure (S.I) units (Pa);
- measurement of pressure;
- simple mercury barometer; aneroid barometer and manometer;
- variation of pressure with height;
- the use of barometer as an altimeter.
- Pressure in liquids
- the relationship between pressure, depth and density (P = gh)
- transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’s Principle)
11. Liquids At Rest
- determination of density of solids and liquids
- definition of relative density
- upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid
- Archimedes’ principle and law of floatation and applications, e.g. ships and hydrometers.
12. Temperature and Its Measurement
- concept of temperature
- thermometric properties
- calibration of thermometers
- temperature scales – Celsius and Kelvin.
- types of thermometers
- conversion from one scale of temperature to another
13. Thermal Expansion
- definition and determination of linear, volume and area expansivities;
- effects and applications, e.g. expansion in building strips and railway lines;
- relationship between different expansivities.
- volume expansivity;
- real and apparent expansivities;
- determination of volume expansivity;
- anomalous expansion of water.
14. Gas Laws
- Boyle’s law (isothermal process)
- Charle’s law (isobaric process)
- Pressure law (volumetric process)
- absolute zero of temperature
- general gas equation: (PV / T = constant )
- ideal gas equation e.g. Pv = nRT
- Van der waal gas
15. Quantity of Heat
- heat as a form of energy;
- definition of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of solids and liquids;
- determination of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of substances by simple methods e.g. method of mixtures and electrical method and Newton’s law of cooling
16. Change of State
- latent heat;
- specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;
- melting, evaporation and boiling;
- the influence of pressure and of dissolved substances on boiling and melting points;
- application in appliances.
- unsaturated and saturated vapours;
- relationship between saturated vapour pressure (S.V.P) and boiling;
- determination of S.V.P by barometer tube method;
- formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain;
- study of dew point, humidity and relative humidity;
- hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hygrometers.
18. Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory
- Molecular nature of matter
- atoms and molecules;
- molecular theory: explanation of Brownian motion, diffusion, surface tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of contact e.tc;
- examples and applications.
- Kinetic Theory
- assumptions of the kinetic theory
- using the theory to explain the pressure exerted by gas, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, melting, boiling, vapourization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc.
19. Heat Transfer
- conduction, convection and radiation as modes of heat transfer;
- temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux;
- effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it;
- the conductivities of common materials;
- the thermos flask;
- land and sea breeze;
- Production and Propagation
- wave motion;
- vibrating systems as source of waves;
- waves as mode of energy transfer;
- distinction between particle motion and wave motion;
- relationship between frequency, wavelength and wave velocity (V=f λ);
- phase difference, wave number and wave vector;
- progressive wave equation e.g. Y = A sin 2π / vt (vt ± x)
- types of waves; mechanical and electromagnetic waves;
- longitudinal and transverse waves;
- stationary and progressive waves;
- examples of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank.
- reflection, refraction, diffraction and plane polarization;
- superposition of waves e.g. interference
- Doppler effects (qualitative treatment only).
21. Propagation of Sound Waves
- the necessity for a material medium;
- speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;
- reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation and their applications;
- disadvantages of echoes and reverberations.
22. Characteristics of Sound Waves
- noise and musical notes;
- quality, pitch, intensity and loudness and their application to musical instruments;
- simple treatment of overtones produced by vibrating strings and their columns Fo = 1 / 2L √f/u (u = m/f)
- acoustic examples of resonance;
- frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes in relation to their lengths.
23. Light Energy
- Sources of Light
- natural and artificial sources of light;
- luminous and non-luminous objects.
- Propagation of light
- speed, frequency and wavelength of light;
- formation of shadows and eclipse;
- the pin-hole camera.
24. Reflection of Light at Plane and Curved Surfaces
- laws of reflection;
- application of reflection of light;
- formation of images by plane, concave and convex mirrors and ray diagrams;
- use of the mirror formula: 1/f = 1/u + 1/v
- linear magnification.
25. Refraction of Light through at Plane and Curved Surfaces
- explanation of refraction in terms of velocity of light in the media;
- laws of refraction;
- definition of refractive index of a medium;
- determination of refractive index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law;
- real and apparent depth and lateral displacement;
- critical angle and total internal reflection.
- Glass Prism
- use of the minimum deviation formula: U = sin [A+D / 2] / sin [A/2]
- type of lenses;
- use of lens formula: 1/f = 1/u + 1/v and Newton’s formular (F² = ab)
26. Optical Instruments
- the principles of microscopes, telescopes, projectors, cameras and the human eye (physiological details of the eye are not required);
- power of a lens;
- angular magnification;
- near and far points
- sight defects and their corrections.
27. (a) Dispersion of light and colours
- dispersion of white light by a triangular Prism;
- production of pure spectrum;
- colour mixing by addition and subtraction;
- colour of objects and colour filters;
- Electromagnetic spectrum
- description of sources and uses of various types of radiation.
- existence of positive and negative charges in matter;
- charging a body by friction, contact and induction;
- Coulomb’s inverse square law, electric field and potential;
- electric field intensity and potential difference;
- electric discharge and lightning.
- types and functions of capacitors;
- parallel plate capacitors;
- capacitance of a capacitor;
- the relationship between capacitance, area separation of plates and medium between the plates C = EA/d
- capacitors in series and parallel;
- energy stored in a capacitor.
30. Electric Cells
- simple voltaic cell and its defects;
- Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry);
- lead –acid accumulator and Nickel-Iron (Nife) Lithium lron and Mercury cadmium;
- maintenance of cells and batteries (detail treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not required);
- arrangement of cells;
- efficiency of a cell.
31. Current Electricity
- electromagnetic force (emf), potential difference (p.d.), current, internal resistance of a cell and lost Volt;
- Ohm’s law;
- measurement of resistance;
- meter bridge;
- resistance in series and in parallel and their combination;
- the potentiometer method of measuring emf, current and internal resistance of a cell.
- electrical networks.
32. Electrical Energy and Power
- concepts of electrical energy and power;
- commercial unit of electric energy and power;
- electric power transmission
- heating effects of electric current;
- electrical wiring of houses;
- use of fuses.
33. Magnets and Magnetic Fields
- natural and artificial magnets;
- magnetic properties of soft iron and steel;
- methods of making magnets and demagnetization;
- concept of magnetic field;
- magnetic field of a permanent magnet;
- magnetic field round a straight current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid;
- properties of the earth’s magnetic field; north and south poles, magnetic meridian and angle of dip and declination;
- flux and flux density;
- variation of magnetic field intensity over the earth’s surface
- applications: earth’s magnetic field in navigation and mineral exploration.
34. Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field
- quantitative treatment of force between two parallel current-carrying conductors;
- force on a charge moving in a magnetic field;
- the d. c. motor;
- carbon microphone;
- moving coil and moving iron instruments;
- conversion of galvanometers to ammeters and voltmeter using shunts and multipliers;
- sensitivity of a galvanometer.
35. (a) Electromagnetic Induction
- Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction;
- factors affecting induced emf;
- Lenz’s law as an illustration of the principle of conservation of energy;
- a.c. and d.c generators;
- the induction coil.
- explanation of inductance;
- unit of inductance;
- energy stored in an inductor: E = ½ I²L
- application/uses of inductors.
- Eddy Current
- reduction of eddy current
- applications of eddy current
36. Simple A.C. Circuits
- explanation of a.c. current and voltage;
- peak and r.m.s. values;
- a.c. source connected to a resistor;
- a.c source connected to a capacitor-capacitive reactance;
- a.c source connected to an inductor inductive reactance;
- series R-L-C circuits;
- vector diagram, phase angle and power factor;
- resistance and impedance;
- effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits;
- resonance and resonance frequency: F0 = 1/2π √LC
37. Conduction of Electricity Through
- electrolytes and non-electrolyte;
- concept of electrolysis;
- Faraday’s laws of electrolysis;
- application of electrolysis, e.g. electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.
- discharge through gases (qualitative treatment only);
- application of conduction of electricity through gases;
38. Elementary Modern Physics
- models of the atom and their limitations;
- elementary structure of the atom;
- energy levels and spectra;
- thermionic and photoelectric emissions;
- Einstein’s equation and stopping potential
- applications of thermionic emissions and photoelectric effects;
- simple method of production of x-rays;
- properties and applications of alpha, beta and gamma rays;
- half-life and decay constant;
- simple ideas of production of energy by fusion and fission;
- binding energy, mass defect and Einstein’s Energy equation [∆E = ∆Mc²]
- wave-particle paradox (duality of matter);
- electron diffraction;
- the uncertainty principle.
39. Introductory Electronics
- distinction between metals, semiconductors and insulators (elementary knowledge of band gap is required);
- intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors;
- uses of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification;
- n-type and p-type semiconductors;
- elementary knowledge of diodes and transistors.
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