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JAMB Biology syllabus
A — VARIETY OF ORGANISMS
1. Living organisms
- Cell structure and functions of cell components.
- Level of organization
- Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium,
- Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra
- Organ, e.g. onion bulb
- Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive and excretory
- Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas
2. Evolution among the following:
- Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.
- Protista (protozoans and protophyta), e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium
- Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.
- Plantae (plants)
- Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
- iBryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g. Brachmenium and Merchantia.
- Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.
- Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)
- Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
- Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)
- Animalia (animals)
- coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
- Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
- Nematoda (roundworms)
- Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
- Arthropoda e.g. mosquito, cockroach, housefly, bee, butterfly
- Mollusca (e.g. snails)
- Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
- pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
- Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
- Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
- Aves (birds)
- Mammalia (mammals)
3. a Structural / functional and behavioural adaptations of organisms.
- adaptive colouration and its functions.
- Behavioural adaptations in social animals.
- Structural adaptations in organisms.
B — FORM AND FUNCTIONS
1. Internal structure of a flowering plant
- Internal structure of a mammal
- Modes of nutrition
- Types of Nutrition
- Plant nutrition
- Mineral requirements (macro and micro-nutrients)
- Animal nutrition
- Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water
- Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.
- The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions)
- Mammalian alimentary canal
- Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested food.
- Need for transportation
- Materials for transportation. Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)
- Channels for transportation
- Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries).
- Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem).
- Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.
- Respiratory organs and surfaces.
- The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:
- Aerobic respiration
- Anaerobic respiration
- Types of excretory structures:
- contractile vacuole,
- Malpighian tubule,
- stoma and lenticel.
- Excretory mechanisms:
- Excretory products of plants
6. Support and movement
- Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep movements in plants
- supporting tissues in animals
- Types and functions of the skeleton
- Functions of the skeleton in animals
- A sexual reproduction
- Fission as in Paramecium
- Budding as in yeast
- Natural vegetative propagation
- Artificial vegetative propagation.
- sexual reproduction in flowering plants
- Floral parts and their functions.
- Pollination and fertilisation.
- products of sexual reproduction.
- Reproduction in mammals
- structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs
- Fertilization and development. (Fusion of gametes)
- meaning of growth
- Germination of seeds and condition necessary for germination of seeds.
9. Co-ordination and control
- Nervous coordination:
- the components, structure and functions of the central nervous system;
- The components and functions of the peripheral nervous systems;
- Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
- Reflex action
- The sense organs
- skin (tactile)
- nose (olfactory)
- tongue (taste)
- eye (sight)
- ear (auditory)
- Hormonal control
- animal hormonal system
- adrenal gland
- Plant hormones (phytohormones)
- animal hormonal system
- Body temperature regulation
- Salt and water regulation
C — ECOLOGY
1. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms
2. Symbiotic interactions of plants and animals
- Energy flow in the ecosystem:
- food chains,
- food webs and trophic levels
- Nutrient cycling in nature
- carbon cycle
- water cycle
- Nitrogen cycle
3. Natural Habitats
- Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes seashores and mangrove swamps)
- Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.
4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes)
- Tropical rainforest
- Guinea savanna (southern and northern)
- Sudan Savanna
- Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.
5. The Ecology of Populations:
- Population density and overcrowding.
- Adaptation for survival
- Factors that bring about competition.
- Intra and inter-specific competition.
- Relationship between competition and succession.
- Factors affecting population sizes:
- Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).
- Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH) etc.
- Ecological succession
- primary succession
- secondary succession
- characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
- soil structure
- capillarity and humus content
- Components of the soil
- soil organisms
- soil air
- soil water
- Soil fertility:
- loss of soil fertility
- renewal and maintenance of soil fertility
7. Humans and Environment
- Common and endemic diseases.
- Easily transmissible diseases and disease syndrome such as:
- – cholera
- – tuberculosis
- – sexually transmitted disease / syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.
- Pollution and its control
- sources, types, effects and methods of control.
- Sanitation and sewage
- Conservation of Natural Resources
- Game reserves and National parks
D — HEREDITY AND VARIATIONS
1. Variation In Population
- Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals.
- size (height, weight)
- Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales and feathers.
- Physiological variation
- Ability to roll tongue
- Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)
- Blood groups
- Application of discontinuous variation in crime detection, blood transfusion and determination of paternity.
- Inheritance of characters in organisms;
- Heritable and non-heritable characters.
- Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;
- Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.
- Probability in genetics and sex determination.
- Application of the principles of heredity in:
- Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness, haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.
E — EVOLUTION
1. Theories of Evolution
- Lamarck’s theory
- Darwin’s theory
- Organic theory
2. Evidence of evolution
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