Current JAMB Syllabus For Biology (+PDF)

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You will see the current JAMB syllabus for Biology with the PDF version available for free download at the end of this Library.

ALSO SEE: Complete JAMB Syllabus For All Other Subjects

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The PDF version of this syllabus is available for your free download at the bottom of this library.

JAMB Biology syllabus


1. Living organisms

  • Characteristics.
  • Cell structure and functions of cell components.
  • Level of organization 
    • Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium,
    • Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra
    • Organ, e.g. onion bulb
    • Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive and excretory
    • Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas

2. Evolution among the following:

  • Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.
  • Protista (protozoans and protophyta), e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium
  • Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.
  • Plantae (plants)
    • Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
    • iBryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g. Brachmenium and Merchantia.
    • Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.
    • Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)
    • Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
    • Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)
  • Animalia (animals)
    • Invertebrates
      • coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
      • Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
      • Nematoda (roundworms)
      • Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
      • Arthropoda e.g. mosquito, cockroach, housefly, bee, butterfly
      • Mollusca (e.g. snails)
    • Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
      • pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
      • Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
      • Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
      • Aves (birds)
      • Mammalia (mammals)

3. a Structural / functional and behavioural adaptations of organisms.

  • adaptive colouration and its functions.
  • Behavioural adaptations in social animals.
  • Structural adaptations in organisms.


1. Internal structure of a flowering plant

  • Root
  • Stem
  • Leaf
  • Internal structure of a mammal

2. Nutrition

  • Modes of nutrition
    • Autotrophic
    • Heterotrophic
  • Types of Nutrition
  • Plant nutrition
    • Photosynthesis
    • Mineral requirements (macro and micro-nutrients)
  • Animal nutrition
    • Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water
    • Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.
    • The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions)
    • Mammalian alimentary canal
    • Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested food.

3. Transport

  • Need for transportation
  • Materials for transportation. Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)
  • Channels for transportation 
    • Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries).
    • Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem).
  • Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.

4. Respiration 

  • Respiratory organs and surfaces.
  • The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:
    • Plants
    • Mammals
  • Aerobic respiration
  • Anaerobic respiration

5. Excretion

  • Types of excretory structures:
    • contractile vacuole,
    • flamecell,
    • nephridium,
    • Malpighian tubule,
    • kidney,
    • stoma and lenticel.
  • Excretory mechanisms:
    • Kidneys
    • lungs 
    • skin
  • Excretory products of plants

6. Support and movement 

  • Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep movements in plants
  • supporting tissues in animals
  • Types and functions of the skeleton
    • Exoskeleton
    • Endoskeleton
    • Functions of the skeleton in animals

7. Reproduction 

  • A sexual reproduction
    • Fission as in Paramecium
    • Budding as in yeast
    • Natural vegetative propagation
    • Artificial vegetative propagation.
  • sexual reproduction in flowering plants
    • Floral parts and their functions.
    • Pollination and fertilisation.
    • products of sexual reproduction.
  • Reproduction in mammals
    • structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs
    • Fertilization and development. (Fusion of gametes)

8. Growth 

  • meaning of growth
  • Germination of seeds and condition necessary for germination of seeds.

9. Co-ordination and control

  • Nervous coordination:
    • the components, structure and functions of the central nervous system;
    • The components and functions of the  peripheral nervous systems;
    • Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
    • Reflex action
  • The sense organs
    • skin (tactile)
    • nose (olfactory)
    • tongue (taste)
    • eye (sight) 
    • ear (auditory)
  • Hormonal control
    • animal hormonal system
      •  Pituitary
      •  thyroid
      •  parathyroid
      • adrenal gland
      • pancreas
      • gonads
    • Plant hormones (phytohormones)
  • Homeostasis 
    • Body temperature regulation
    • Salt and water regulation


1. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms

  • Abiotic
  • Biotic

2. Symbiotic interactions of plants and animals

  • Energy flow in the ecosystem:
    • food chains,
    • food webs and trophic levels
  • Nutrient cycling in nature
    • carbon cycle
    • water cycle
    • Nitrogen cycle

3. Natural Habitats

  • Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes seashores and mangrove swamps)
  • Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.

4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes)

  • Tropical rainforest
  • Guinea savanna (southern and northern)
  • Sudan Savanna
  • Desert
  • Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.

5. The Ecology of Populations:

  • Population density and overcrowding.
  • Adaptation for survival
    • Factors that bring about competition.
    • Intra and inter-specific competition.
    • Relationship between competition and succession.
  • Factors affecting population sizes:
    • Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).
    • Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH) etc.
  • Ecological succession
    • primary succession
    • secondary succession

6. Soil

  • characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey) 
    • soil structure
    • porosity,
    • capillarity and humus content
  • Components of the soil 
    • inorganic
    • organic
    • soil organisms
    • soil air
    • soil water
  • Soil fertility:
    • loss of soil fertility
    • renewal and maintenance of soil fertility

7. Humans and Environment

  • Diseases: 
    • Common and endemic diseases.
    • Easily transmissible diseases and disease syndrome such as:
      • poliomyelitis
      • – cholera
      • – tuberculosis
      • – sexually transmitted disease / syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.
  • Pollution and its control 
    • sources, types, effects and methods of control.
    •  Sanitation and sewage
  • Conservation of Natural Resources
  • Game reserves and National parks


1. Variation In Population

  • Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals.
    • size (height, weight) 
    • Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales and feathers.
    • Fingerprints 
  • Physiological variation 
    • Ability to roll tongue 
    • Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) 
    • Blood groups
  • Application of discontinuous  variation in crime detection, blood transfusion and determination of paternity. 

2. Heredity

  • Inheritance of characters in organisms;
    • Heritable and non-heritable characters.
  • Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;
    • Structure
    • Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.
  • Probability in genetics and sex determination.
  • Application of the principles of heredity in:
    • Agriculture
    • Medicine
  • Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness, haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.


1. Theories of Evolution

  • Lamarck’s theory
  • Darwin’s theory
  • Organic theory

2. Evidence of evolution

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